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What Is Contract Hire?
Contract hire is a type of leasing and a way of acquiring the use of a vehicle without
taking ownership of it.
The hire period is usually a number of months or years during which the vehicle is
still owned by the leasing company. Effectively the lessee (the person or company
to whom the vehicle is leased) is borrowing the vehicle from the supplier for a fixed
period in return for a lease payment.
What's In Contract Hire Rentals?
During the lease period the lessee pays a rental to the leasing company which covers
the costs incurred by the leasing company to operate the vehicle.
In other words, the lessee pays for:
At the end of the lease period the lessee normally returns the vehicle to the leasing
company. The leasing company disposes of the vehicle and takes any profit or loss
on the sale.
Contract hire is sometimes described as a 'partly amortised' or 'balloon' finance product.
'Amortisation' is the process of writing off the cost of an item over a period of time. With partly amortised or balloon leases such as contract hire only the expected depreciation in the value of the vehicle is repaid to the finance company over the finance period (the 'term'). The expected residual value of the vehicle is left unpaid, with this lump sum often called a 'balloon'.
Because the lessee pays only for depreciation during the period of the lease (the 'term'), as each monthly instalment is paid the payment reduces the outstanding amount financed at a much slower rate than in 'fully amortised' leases.
Because less of the purchase price is repaid in each payment, assuming interest rates are the same in both fully amortised and balloon leases, the total interest charges in a
contract hire arrangement are more than those in a fully amortised finance product such as finance leasing or hire purchase (because more money is left unpaid during the term), so the overall costs of finance for contract hire are higher than those of a fully amortised lease.
However, repaying a lower amount of the purchase price each month means that the actual monthly payments are lower in balloon leases than for a fully amortised.
Advantages of Contract Hire
Because the leasing company recovers VAT on the price of the vehicle the rentals for
passenger cars will be lower than comparable finance instalments for contract purchase.
Because the vehicle is leased, the normal responsibilities of ownerhip, such as sourcing
the best deal and obtaining the best resale (or 'residual') value, are avoided, as
is the risk of the residual value being less than expected.
In effect, the lessee simple operates the vehicle rather than owning it, so contract hire is sometimes referred to as an 'operating lease'
Under accounting conventions applying at the date of publication, contract hire does
not need to be disclosed on the balance sheet of a business as a liability. This
status can improve the appearance of the financial position of a business.
Disadvantages of Contract Hire
If the lease agreement is terminated earlier than expected then the lessee may be
required to pay a penalty (usually a number of months rentals).
Under new accounting conventions proposed for larger businesses contract hire will need to be disclosed on the balance sheet (eventually all businesses will be required to disclose contract hire agreements).
VAT incurred on the lease rentals cannot be recovered in full on passenger cars used
for private purposes by employees - only 50% of the VAT incurred can be recovered.
Tax relief for the
lessee on cars with a CO2 output over 110GP/Km is restricted, thereby increasing the total costs to the lessor
of providing contract hire for cars with higher CO2 emissions.
This can result in lessors charging higher interest rates in contract hire agreements for cars with a CO2 output of more than 110GP/Km in order to recoup the lost tax relief.